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Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

Before we discuss experiments and activities, it is essential to know apparatus that would be used at different stages while performing the practicals.

1. Beaker : It is a cylindrical vessel with a rimmed top and flat bottom. The rim of the beaker has a special place for pouring the liquid. The beaker is made of hand glass. Beakers are available in different sizes i.e., 50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml, 400 ml etc. Beakers are used for storage and for various other purposes.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

Beeker Trough

2. Trough : It is a wide flat bottomed circular vessel made of glass. It is used as a storage vessel.

3. Retort : It is a round bottomed flask having an opening for pouring chemicals in it and a slanting tapering tube. This is used for distillation and for other purposes.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

4. Funnel: It is a cone shaped utensil with a tube at the bottom. It is made of glass or polythene. It is used for pouring liquids or for filtration.

5. Flask : It is a round flask having a long narrow neck. They are available in different shapes and sizes.

(i) A round bottomed flask is used for strongly heating a reaction mixture.

(ii) A flat bottomed flask is generally used for storing liquids or solutions or for making a wash-bottle.

(iii) A conical flask is used for carrying out chemical reactions especially titrations.

(iv) A measuring flask is used for preparing solutions of known strength.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

Different types of flasks.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory6. Porcelain dish or china dish : It is a bowl shaped dish made of glazed porcelain. It is used for concentrating solution and drying wet solids.

7. Thistle funnel : It is a funnel having a round upper portion and a long tube below.

8. Separating funnel : It is a funnel used for separating two immiscible liquids which differ in their densities.

9. Pipette : It is tube like glass apparatus having a cylindrical bulb in the middle and a fine jet at a lower end. It is used for measuring a definite volume (10 ml, 20 ml etc.) of a liquid or solution.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

10. Measuring cylinder or graduated cylinder : It is a tall, wide glass with markings for measurements (millimetres). It is used for measuring volume of a liquid or solution. Measuring cylinders are available in different sizes.

11. Cylinder : It is like a graduated cylinder without markings. It is used for collecting gases.

12. Test tube : It is a long narrow glass tube (1.5 cm * 15 cm) with rounded closed bottom.

13. Boiling tube (2.5 x 15 cm) is used for heating or boiling liquids or solutions.

14. Woulf's bottle : It is a broad glass bottle with flat bottom and two openings at the top.

15. Pestle mortar : It is used for grinding solids.

16. Crucible : It is a small dish which is used for burning chemicals at high temperature.

17. Water bath : It is used for boiling or heating volatile liquids.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

18. Sprit lamp : It is used for heating or boiling things.

19. Funnel stand : It is a stand of wood or iron for holding funnels.

20. Iron stand : It is used for holding long necked flasks while boiling.

21. Tripod stand : On this stand apparatus to be heated is kept.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

22. Measuring flask : It is a triangular flask with markings. Usually measuring flask of 250 cc is used in laboratories.

23. Burette : It is a long tube like apparatus having a stop cock arrangement at the lower end. It is calibrated in the unit of one tenth of a millimetre. It is used for titrations.

24. Glass rod : It is a solid cylindrical piece of rod used for stirring the solutions.

25. Watch glass : This is made up of glass and is used for covering the beaker.

26. Wire gauze : It is a mesh of fine iron wires. An asbestos paper is also affixed.

27. Test tube stand : A test tube stand is either made of plastic or of wood. It is mainly used to keep the test tubes.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

28. Bunsen burner : Bunsen burner is the most commonly used apparatus in the chemistry laboratory. These days L.P.G. is the most commonly used fuel in the Bunsen burner.

Here under are shown the important parts of the Busen burner. Identify each part and know how to use the Busen burner correctly.

Common Apparatus used in Chemistry Laboratory

(a) Bunsen burner, (b) Parts of Bunsen burner, (c) Zones of flame.

Following precautions must be followed while using the Bunsen burners :

(i) Ensure that all parts of the burner are airtight.

(ii) First light the matchstick at the tip of the burner and then turn on the gas supply.

(iii) After using the burner, switch it off. Also see that the main gas tap is also switched off.

(iv) Any smell of the L.P.G. gas must be reported to the teacher immediately.

(v) Follow other instructions also while using Bunsen burner.

Keeping the apparatus

All apparatus should be kept at their proper places, after the experiment, so that whenever, any piece of apparatus is required it is easily available to you.

Keeping the apparatus clean

All kinds of glass apparatus must be cleaned properly after use. Dirt and chemicals sticking inside the apparatus are found to affect the experiment.

Cleaning with ordinary detergent is suggested. A solution of any available detergent is made and with its help and with the help of a brush, apparatus should be cleaned properly. In case of nasty or extremely dirty apparatus, dilute chromic-acid solution is suggested. Bottle brushes may be used to remove stains. After cleaning with detergent solution or dilute chromic acid, the apparatus should be washed in running water.

Here under are shown the important parts of the Bunsen burner. Identify each part and know how to use the Bunsen burner correctly.

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