The topic of Number sense will help a child overcome the frustration of not able to solve apparently straightforward and simple arithmetic problems.

With the introduction of symbols a child might feel all confused and unsure of the number relations involved.

Early experiences of number operations will help the child understand the important links between many structures and provide effective calculating strategies.

Number sense provides an inclination and an ability to use numbers and quantitative methods as a means of communicating, processing and interpreting information. It results in an expectation that mathematics has certain regularity.

The topic of Number Sense will include the basics of counting numbers, addition and subtractionof numbers, place valuesof these numbers, comparing the numbers and money.

## Basics of Number Sense

Basics of Number systeminvolves following sub topics: Counting, Place Value, Numbers in Words, Words to Numbers, Expanded Form, Expanded Notation, Comparison, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Coins and Dollar Bills, Money Combination's, Counting Money, Adding and Subtracting Money.

**Addition:** Addition is a mathematical operation that represents combining collections of objects and digits together into a larger collection.

It is denoted by plus sign (+).

**Subtraction:** Subtraction is a one of four mathematical operations that represents difference of objects and digits together into a smaller collection.

It is denoted by plus minus (-).

**Powers of ten**:** **Learning** **and use of exponents tells us how many times the number is used as a factor.

10 = 10 x 1 = 10^{1}

100** = **10 x 10 = 10^{2}1000

**=**10 x 10 x 10

**=**10

^{3}

**Place value to Thousands** **and Millions**:** **Learning about place value to thousands and millions will help get to the fundamentals of four digit and seven digit numbers better.**Place value in Decimals and Money**:** **Learning about place values to the** **right of decimal point stand for values between zero and one.

**Money Combinations:** Money combination's are the combination's through which we can count money based on different combination's i.e, certain amount can be calculated using some combination's say dollars, penny, dime, quarter etc.

The American currency was basically divided into penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half dollar and dollar.

## Algebra and Functions

Algebra and functions involves following sub topics: Commutative and Associative rules, Patterns and classification while Commutative and Associative rules is used in addition, subtraction and Multiplication.

Number patterns gives the differences between the numbers in the sequence, and this information helps to work out what comes next, or to fill in the gaps. Common number patterns:

Number patterns have interesting patterns it includes:

1. Arithmetic Sequences

2. Geometric Sequences

3. Special Sequences

I. Triangular Numbers

II. Square Numbers

III. Cube Numbers

IV. Fibonacci Numbers

**Knowledge of Number Sense**:

Knowledge of Number Sense involves an understanding of structures and regularity of number systems starting with whole numbers and extending to rational numbers and the way these systems are linked.

When number symbols are familiar then their arrangement on a **100 Square** will show the regularity with which certain symbols appear.

Alternative representation showing number structure presented in a **Gattengo Chart** which focuses on the larger numbers are constructed by identifying their constituent parts.

These resources can help the development of imagery to support calculating methods, particularly for addition and subtraction.

Time is an entity which is used to calculate the duration i.e.(in hours, minutes and second).

This is also used in terms of months and years while calculating the interest rates(simple and compound interest), and it is used in many forms mainly to calculate duration.

Time is usually specified using the terms such as hours, minutes and seconds, which places an important role in calculating time.

Time is represented generally as

HH:MM:SS

(06:24:12) 6hours 24 minutes 12 seconds

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