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# Introduction to Multiplication

Multiplication is one of the mathematical operations for multiplying one number by another. It is one of the four basic operations in elementary arithmetic (the others being addition, subtraction and division). It plays major role counting total number of objects or items in the given material or numbers.

It’s denoted by: X (or) *

Multiplication is denoted by (X or *) the result is denoted by equal to sign.

Example: 3 and 4

Given 4 and 4

4 X 4 =16(4+4+4+4=16)

The product of two numbers can be obtained by multiplying the numbers, we can check the answers by adding the two terms .

4 and 4 are multiplied so denoted by X and result is 16 which is denoted by = sign.

## Properties of Multiplication

1. Commutative property

The order in which you multiply does not matter, left hand side will be equal to right hand side.

x.y=y.x.

2. Associative property

(x.y).z=x.(y.z)

The order of multiplication is important.

3. Distributive property

X .(y+z)=x.y+z

4. Identity element

Any constant or term multiplied by 1 is the term only ,ie the term will be the answer This is known as the identity property:

x.1=x

Example: 5 and 1

i. 5 X 1=5

5. Zero elements

Anything multiplied by zero is zero.so the term or constant multiplied will be equal to 0 This is known as the zero property of multiplication:

x.0=0

Example: 5 and 0

i. 5X0=0

6. Inverse property

Every number x, has a multiplicative inverse, 1/x, such that

x (1/x)=1.

Note: zero is not valid in this property

7. Multiplication by a positive number in order: if a > 0, then if b > c then ab > ac. Multiplication by a negative number reverses order: if a < 0 and b > c then ab < ac.

1.when negative term multiplied by + it will be -ve

(-) x=-x

2.when a negative term multiplied by -ve always will be -ve.

-1(-1) =1

## Multiplication by Table

The above table we can see from 0 to 12

1 × 1 = 1

2 × 1 = 2

2 × 2 = 4

3 × 1 = 3

3 × 2 = 6

3 × 3 = 9

This is how we can multiply the terms easily.